Asian Americans have been a part of this nation’s history since its very beginning. Though U.S. immigration policies have influenced from where and how people from all parts of Asia have arrived in the U.S., for generations, Asian Americans have played an integral part of building this country. Their experience in the U.S. — how they are treated, their ability to achieve economic success, and the extent to which they can fully participate in all aspects of American society — is inextricably tied to global politics and events. As a result, different Asian immigrant groups at different points in time have been in the spotlight in American discourse and policy, either as targets of suspicion or exemplars of the American ideal.
The Asian American population is far from being a monolith. The Pew Research Center reports that the Asian American population, totaling 23 million, represents more than 20 countries in East and Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The Asian American population in the U.S. is also growing fast — surpassing the growth rate of any other racial or ethnic group between 2000 and 2019.
Though the exact composition of the Asian American population is slightly different in the U.S. and in Florida, as shown in Figure 1 below, six countries of origin account for 85 percent of the population.
The Asian American population in Florida is also increasing faster than it is in the nation as a whole. Between 2011 and 2019, the Asian American population in Florida increased 35 percent, compared to 27 percent nationwide. As illustrated in Figure 2, each of the top countries of origin saw increases during this time period.
There is also significant variation in the socioeconomic status of Asian American groups. As Erika Lee describes in The Making of Asian America, “Asian Americans are in fact what some call a ‘community of contrasts,’ with significant diversity and disparities within and between different groups.” Census data bears this out. Though on the whole Asian Americans have higher household incomes than the U.S. average, certain Asian American groups, such as Burmese and Nepalese households, fall significantly below the average. The same is true for Asian Americans living in poverty. While the overall poverty rate among Asian Americans (10 percent) is less than the national average (13 percent), some groups have significantly higher poverty rates such as Bangladeshi and Pakistani Americans (19 percent and 15 percent, respectively).
As a growing population both in Florida and the U.S., it is important not to paint the entire Asian American population with a broad brush. These data show that Asian Americans are diverse and represent dozens of cultures, languages, histories, and identities — and along with this diversity comes unique experiences and challenges as Americans.
Asians have been migrating to the U.S. for generations, with earlier arrivals coming from China, Japan, Korea, and India to work as laborers and farmers in the 1800s. The most significant catalyst for Asian migration to the U.S. in recent history was the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which fundamentally changed the nature and flow of immigration. It prioritized immigration based on family reunification and professional skills, and for the first time enacted a cap on immigration from the Western Hemisphere. This Act, along with the 1990 Immigration Act, opened the doors for Asians from a vast array of backgrounds to make their home in the U.S.
Throughout this history, Asian Americans have faced significant prejudice and barriers to opportunity through policies that reinforced structural racism. The perception and treatment of Asian Americans has also fluctuated with global events, often causing them to be looked upon with suspicion and with questions about their allegiance to the U.S. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II are some of the more well known and overt instances of policies targeting Asian Americans. But there were many other ways that Asian Americans were barred from full participation in American life, the legacy of which persists today.
One example here in Florida is the 2018 repeal of the state’s “Alien Land Law.” These laws were passed in many states during the 1920s, specifically to bar Chinese and Japanese immigrants from owning land. Florida’s Alien Land Law, passed in 1926, stated:
All natural persons, female and male alike, are equal before the law and have inalienable rights, among which are the right to enjoy and defend life and liberty, to pursue happiness, to be rewarded for industry, and to acquire, possess and protect property; except that the ownership, inheritance, disposition and possession of real property by aliens ineligible for citizenship may be regulated or prohibited by law.
As the Asian Pacific American Bar Association of South Florida explains, the term “aliens ineligible for citizenship” was a euphemism for Asian immigrants. At the time that these laws were passed, the U.S. had only extended citizenship to African Americans, while other ethnic groups were prohibited — namely Chinese and Japanese immigrants. Though immigration laws eventually removed the barriers to citizenship based on race or ethnicity, the state constitution kept this vestige of racism for far too long. In fact, Florida was the last state to repeal its Alien Land Law.
As mentioned above, Asian Americans’ acceptance as “real” Americans has always been tenuous. Global forces and events can turn perceptions of Asian Americans in an instant, with real-life impacts for Asian Americans.
Even a seemingly positive portrayal of Asian Americans as “model minorities” is part and parcel of the same racist beliefs that deemed the Chinese immigrants a “Yellow Peril” leading to the Chinese Exclusion Act. Model minorities, so the thinking goes, are from certain Asian cultures with values that are “superior” to others, thus enabling people from those cultures to “rise above discrimination through hard work” to achieve economic and social success. This stereotype not only glosses over the disparities with the Asian American population, it is also rooted in anti-Black racism and pits communities of color against each other.
The model minority myth has persisted alongside other insidious stereotypes of Asian Americans. After the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, and subsequent War on Terror, South Asian Americans from a variety of religious backgrounds were targeted as domestic terrorists. In that moment, the “American-ness” of South Asian Americans became suspect, despite the economic and professional success many had achieved in the U.S. Fears of homegrown terrorists and sleeper cells fueled a rise in hate crimes. The U.S. Department of Justice reported that in the six years following the September 11 attacks, the department investigated over 800 incidents of violence against individuals who were “perceived to be Muslim or Sikh, or of Arab, Middle Eastern, or South Asian Origin.”
Most recently, the global COVID-19 pandemic has put Asian Americans in the spotlight. Rhetoric surrounding the pandemic and its suspected origins, using names like the “China virus,” served to construct China the public enemy, and by extension cast suspicion once again on Chinese and other Asian Americans. The Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism published an analysis showing that anti-Asian hate crimes increased 149 percent in 2020, while overall hate crimes decreased 7 percent. This year saw the shooting at three Atlanta spas, killing eight people, including six Asian women, and spurring the #StopAsianHate movement.
Despite their fraught history, Asian Americans have forged a unique identity that celebrates their diversity and they have found common ground with other communities of color in the struggle for justice and equity. As Erika Lee describes , “After decades of being lumped together by the media and lawmakers as undifferentiated ‘Orientals’ who were threats to American Society, a new generation willingly and consciously joined together as self-identified Asian Americans to promote multi-ethnic alliances and action.”
Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month was borne out of this effort to reclaim the Asian American identity. It began in 1972 as a week and expanded in 1992 to a month-long celebration of the spectrum of cultures and backgrounds that Asian and Pacific Americans represent. While it certainly does not resolve the long history of racism toward people of Asian heritage, it is one part of an effort to expand the Asian American narrative.
American Rescue Plan Act Changes. The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 extended PEUC and PUA benefits through the week ending September 6, 2021. It also increased the maximum duration of PEUC benefits ($300 a week) to 53 weeks and the maximum duration of PUA to 79 weeks. Although PEUC and PUA did not end until September 6, 2021, Florida withdrew from the Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation Program (FPUC) effective June 26, 2021. FPUC provided persons who were out of work due to COVID-19 with an additional $300 a week in unemployment insurance.
Reemployment Assistance weeks reverted to 12 effective January 1, 2022. DEO determines the maximum number of weeks available to RA claimants based on a statutory formula that looks at the average unemployment rate for the most recent third calendar year quarter (i.e., July, August, and September). Based on the downturn in unemployment, the maximum number of weeks for RA reverted to 12 effective January 1, 2022.
RA work-search and work registration requirements reinstated on May 30, 2021. Persons filing an application for RA benefits beginning March 15, 2020, are not required to complete work registration in Employ Florida through May 29, 2021. In addition, work search requirements for individuals requesting benefits for the weeks beginning March 15, 2020, were also reinstated on May 30, 2021.
Mobile app deployed. DEO has deployed a mobile app for RA applications.
DEO announces extended benefits. DEO announced implementation of Extended Benefits (EB).
Resources and guidance. For a list of resources and guidance from the United States Department of Labor on unemployment insurance and COVID-19, go here.
For DEO’s “Reemployment Assistance Frequently Asked Questions and Additional Resources,” updated 12/30/2020, go here.
For DEO’s latest claims data, go here.
DCF opens offices. DCF has reopened its brick-and-mortar storefronts, which were previously closed due to coronavirus.
DCF adds call center numbers. DCF has added a call center number for Monday through Friday, from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Call center numbers now include 850-300-4323, 866-762-2237, or TTY 1-800-955-8771.
Certification periods extended by 6 months only through August 2020. Certification periods for cash, food and medical assistance were extended by 6 months for individuals and families scheduled to recertify in April through August 2020. FNS’ approval of the SNAP extension for August is here. However, effective September 1, 2020, SNAP, TANF and Medicaid recertifications have been reinstated, although DCF says that no one will lose Medicaid due to recertification.
DCF allows phone interviews. Phone interviews are now being used for TANF cash and SNAP food assistance.
Mandatory work requirements suspended only through May 2021. Under a directive from Governor DeSantis to waive work requirements for safety net programs, DCF waived work requirements for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) through May 2021. To do this, DCF explains that it partnered with the Department of Economic Opportunity to apply “good cause” statewide for TANF and SNAP recipients who would otherwise be subject to participation in mandatory work requirements as a condition of receiving those benefits. Through May 2021, persons who were sanctioned in the past due to work requirements will be able to reapply and participate in SNAP or TANF again.
Work requirements were reinstated effective June 1, 2021.
Emergency allotments (EA) ended. DCF automatically supplemented SNAP allotments of current recipients up to the maximum for a household’s size for July 2021. However, EA was discontinued beginning August 1, 2021.
The SNAP benefits increase by 15 percent ended in October 2021. Floridians who participate in SNAP to put food on the table will receive a temporary 15 percent supplement to SNAP under COVID relief passed by Congress and extended by the American Rescue Plan Act through September 2021.
FNS permanently increases SNAP through revamp of the Thrifty Food Plan. Effective October 2021, FNS has mandated a permanent increase to SNAP through a revamp of the Thrifty Food Plan. DCF says that the increase amounts to about 6% for Floridians.
Time limits suspended. SNAP time limits are suspended during the COVID-19 public health emergency. No one in Florida should be barred from SNAP due to time limits, even if they exhausted their time limit in the past.
Florida granted waiver to allow families to purchase groceries online. DCF has been granted a federal waiver to permit the State of Florida to launch a pilot project statewide effective April 21, 2020, that allows families to purchase groceries online with their Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) card instead of going into stores.
No Medicaid terminations from March 2020 through the end of the federal public health emergency. The national public health emergency has existed since January 27, 2020 and has been renewed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services in 90-day increments since that time. The most recent renewal is effective January 16, 2022.
Redetermination/recertification times are reinstated. As of October 1, 2020 AHCA's website is alerting recipients that the Department of Children and Families is now mailing letters for case reviews to check if a household is still eligible for Medicaid and/or Medically Needy. AHCA is urging people receiving these letters to take steps now to re-apply. But note, Medicaid coverage will not end during the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency. In January 2021 DCF conducted one-year “automated renewals” for people whose sole income is social security and SSI and are enrolled in an SSI-related Medicaid program (e.g., MEDS/AD, Medically Needy and Medicare Savings Programs). People getting VA income were not included in the automated renewal.
Extended application time. Effective with applications filed in February 2020, the time for submitting documentation required to process an application is extended for 120 days from the date of the application and eligibility will still be effective the first day of the month the application was received. Effective July 1, 2021, this policy has been rescinded. Medicaid applications submitted on or after July 1, 2021 may be denied on the 30th day after application or the day after verification information is due. Applications filed prior to July 1, will be allowed 120 days to provide requested verification to establish Medicaid eligibility.
Exclusion of additional unemployment payments in determining eligibility. The $600/week of additional unemployment insurance payments under the CARES Act will not be counted as income in determining Medicaid eligibility. (However, these payments will be counted as income in determining marketplace subsidy calculations.)
Coverage of Medicaid services during the state of emergency
COVID-19 Vaccines for Medicaid Enrollees. In an executive order published March 16, 2021 Governor DeSantis revised the vaccine distribution plan, which applies to the general public including Medicaid enrollees, to lower the age requirement to 40 effective March 29, 2021 and then effective April 5, 2021 all Floridians are eligible to receive any COVID-19 vaccination approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
Medicaid enrollees eligible to receive the vaccine may visit myvaccine.fl.gov to find a location distributing the vaccine and to schedule an appointment.
On March 12, 2021, AHCA published instructions for Medicaid enrollees on how to obtain Medicaid transportation once they have scheduled an appointment for a vaccine. AHCA states: "Florida Medicaid will take you to get the COVID-19 vaccine at no cost. All you need to do is set up a time to get your vaccine. Next, let your Medicaid plan know you need a ride and they will take care of the rest. If you are not enrolled in a plan, call the Medicaid Helpline at 1-877-254-1055 to find out the name and phone number for a transportation service."
The state has also recently launched a new email system to help bring COVID-19 vaccines to homebound seniors. Seniors will be able to sign up to have the vaccine come to them by emailing a request to HomeboundVaccine@em.myflorida.com.
AHCA has posted Medicaid Alerts and FAQs providing more detail on Medicaid service changes in response to COVID-19. They address a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: telemedicine guidance for medical, behavioral health, and early intervention services providers; long-term care provider network flexibilities allowing more types of providers to deliver specified long term care services; and continuity of care for adult day care center enrollees during the time these centers are closed.
AHCA is loosening coverage restrictions for behavioral health services. Effective May 5, 2020, all prior authorization requirements for mental health or substance use disorder treatment are waived and service limitations (frequency and duration) are lifted. For behavioral analysis services, current authorizations will be extended through an "administrative approval process" which does not require providers to reassess beneficiaries currently getting services. Effective July 1, 2021 service limits will be reinstated for behavioral health services and effective July 15, 2021 Medicaid prior authorization requirements will be reinstated for behavioral health services.
Per a May 29, 2020 provider alert, during the state of emergency AHCA will be reimbursing providers for telemedicine well-child visits provided to children older than 24 months through age 20. Providers are directed to actively work to schedule follow-up in-person visits to administer immunizations and other physical components of the exam which cannot be accomplished through telemedicine.
Coverage of home and community-based waiver services (HCBS) - In response to the public emergency, Florida obtained approval from the federal government to make changes in HCBS waiver programs, including the Long Term Care and Developmental Disabilities programs. The changes are effective retroactively from January 27, 2020 to January 26, 2021. Details can be found here. They include, but are not limited to:
Note on COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for the uninsured. Florida has not opted to receive 100 percent federal Medicaid funding for COVID-19 testing of people without health insurance. Under the 2021 American Rescue Plan Act this option has been expanded to cover COVID-19 treatment and vaccines for the uninsured as well. Since the state has not taken up this option Floridians must look to an uneven patchwork of free testing, treatment, and vaccine resources scattered around the state. AHCA advises that uninsured people may receive free testing from their county health department or a federally qualified health center and that “many communities provide testing for free for individuals who do not have insurance. Please [click here] to find a test site in your area. Uninsured individuals should ask before the test whether testing is free of charge." There are no state agency instructions on where uninsured people can receive free treatment. However, more information on possible sources for free treatment is available here.
Residency proof no longer required at some vaccine sites, “paving the way for migrants.” - On April 29, 2021 Surgeon General Rivkees issued a new public health advisory specifying that COVID-19 vaccines are available to “a Florida resident” or someone “who is present in Florida for the purpose of providing goods or services for the benefits of residents and visitors of the State of Florida.” This new policy applies to all state-run and federally supported vaccination sites. It rescinds an advisory issued in January that had restricted vaccinations to people who could show proof of Florida residency
2021 unemployment compensation claimants can access free or reduced cost health insurance through the ACA marketplace. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace was re-opened in February 2021 to give people who need health insurance a new “special enrollment" opportunity to get covered. The 2021 American Rescue Plan eliminated or vastly reduced premiums for many people with low or moderate incomes.
Starting July 1, 2021, people who received or have been approved for unemployment compensation for any week beginning in 2021 can access free or reduced cost comprehensive health insurance plans through the ACA marketplace. This benefit is available regardless of someone's current income. To get this benefit, people must enroll in the marketplace no later than August 15, 2021. For help with enrollment, contact Covering Florida at 877-813-9115.
School children in distance learning still eligible for free or reduced cost meals. Students in distance learning for 2020-21 can still receive school meals through the National School Lunch Program if they are eligible. The student or parent/guardian may pick up meals at the school but should contact their school for more information.
For a list of current child nutrition program waivers for Florida from USDA, go here.
Congress allows increased fruit and vegetable benefits. At present, WIC provides $9 for children and $11 for women monthly for fruits and vegetables. The American Rescue Plan Act makes funding available for a four-month increase in the benefit of up to $35 monthly, if a state chooses to do so.
DOH attains waiver allowing remote issuance: Department of Health (DOH) obtained a waiver of the requirement that participants pick up their EBT cards in person at recertification or during nutritional education appointments.
WIC participants allowed to substitute certain food. Under a waiver from USDA, WIC participants in Florida are allowed to substitute milk of any available fat content and whole wheat or whole grain bread in package sizes up to 24 oz. when 16 oz. packages are unavailable.
USDA waived physical presence requirements: Although the scope and logistics are unclear at this time, USDA has given DOH permission to waive the requirement that persons be physically present at each certification or recertification determination in order to determine eligibility under the program through May 31, 2020.
USDA extends certification periods through May 31, 2020, for some participants.
For a list of current WIC waivers for Florida from USDA, go here.
HHS provides guidance. HHS has issued guidance on the flexibilities in TANF to respond to COVID-19.